Biology is the study of living things. It encompasses the cellular basis of living things, the energy metabolism that underlies the activities of life, and the genetic basis for inheritance in organisms.
Biology also includes the study of evolutionary relationships among organisms and the diversity of life on Earth. It considers the biology of microorganisms, plants, and animals, for example, and it brings together the structural and functional relationships that underlie their day-to-day activities.
Biology draws on the sciences of chemistry and physics for its foundations and applies the laws of these disciplines to living things.
Many subdisciplines and special areas of biology exist, which can be conveniently divided into practical and theoretical categories. Types of practical biology include plant breeding, wildlife management, medical science, and crop production. Theoretical biology encompasses such disciplines as physiology the study of the function of living thingsbiochemistry the study of the chemistry of organismstaxonomy classificationecology the study of populations and their interactions with each other and their environmentsand microbiology the study of microscopic organisms.
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It's natural for your in-class notes to get a little disorganized in a course that covers as much material as AP Biology. Whether you're missing a couple of sections of notes or you just want to see a clearer outline of how the course is structured, this article will be helpful.
I've compiled all the information you need to know for the AP Biology test in the form of links to online notes and descriptions of labs. I'll also follow up with some tips on using these notes effectively. Due to the COVID coronavirus pandemic, AP tests will now be held remotelyand information about how that will work is still evolving. The notes in this article can be used to study for AP Biology tests throughout the year that deal with smaller portions of the curriculum, or they can be referenced in your studying for the final AP exam.
In both cases, you'll want to supplement these notes with information from an AP Biology textbook or review book. You should also incorporate practice questions, quizzes, and tests into your studying to solidify your knowledge of the material.
You can find these resources in my AP Biology study guidea review bookyour textbook, and the materials provided by your teacher. In-class tests, quizzes, and labs are also useful study aids. Don't just read through the notes once and expect to do well! Since AP Biology requires a significant amount of analysis and critical thinking beyond memorization, you need to practice answering questions that test skills beyond the basic knowledge you'll get from these notes.
If you're using these notes to study for a particular portion of the AP Biology course, you can find the appropriate topic area in the list below. I've organized the topics according to the four "Big Ideas" of the course so that you can find the unit you're looking for more easily.
If you're using these notes to study for the final exam, assess your strengths and weaknesses first so that you can prioritize the right content areas. Take a diagnostic test to determine how high you're currently scoring and which types of questions give you the most trouble. Print it out and give yourself the appropriate amount of time for each section so that you're not caught off-guard by time constraints on test day.
As a result, there are very few, if any, practice tests available that use this new structure of the exam. If you're practicing for in-class tests, you should also rehearse your creepy stare so that your teacher will be too terrified to give you anything less than an A. In this section, I'll give you links to some resources for notes on every aspect of the AP Biology curriculum.From everyone everywhere ever - thank you Emma. You have helped those in need including me.
Added new stuff regulary and the best part is each and every stuff available on this blog is detailed solved. Helped me a lot. Revision Guides, Solved Past Papers etc. Thanks for this helpful blog of biology!! What should i do. I didnt studied anything and i have exam after 2 weeks please tell me how can i get this what should i do? How can i study this?
After 4 years im back to study help me please. Am gonna write this exam next year so it will help me to revise for my exam Greetings Emma, Congrats for this marvelous job indeed.
Introduction to cells
And above all, thanks a lot for sharing it with us. I'm not a biology student i never quite did well in Biology may be because i didn't have your notes!!! I'm carrying out a study on the decrease of Biology students and the way of learning in my country and would like to know if they are provided with appropriate tools and good notes if this will have some sort of positive impact, etc on their studies.
I thank you in advance for your kind comprehension. Best regards, Shoueib. Hi Shoueib! I'm very glad that this website has been of use to you in one way or another. And yes, please feel free to use any pdf file on this blog. We're all about sharing knowledge here and I'd be more than happy for these posts to be used! Kind regards, E. Hi Emma, Thank you very much indeed.
Best regards Thank u very much Emma. Was very helpful thanks a lot. It's really helpful too. Thank you for these notes.
They are extremely helpful for my teaching lessons.All living things are made from one or more cells. A cell is the simplest unit of life and they are responsible for keeping an organism alive and functioning. This introduction to cells is the starting point for the area of biology that studies the various types of cells and how they work.
There is a massive variety of different types of cells but they all have some common characteristics. Almost every different type of cell contains genetic materiala membrane and cytoplasm.
Cells also have many other features such as organelles and ribosomes that perform specific functions. Many different organisms on the tree of life contain only one cell and are known as single-celled or unicellular organisms. Their single cell performs all the necessary functions to keep the organism alive. All species of bacteria and archaea are single-celled organisms. On the other hand, large organisms like humans are made from many trillions of cells that work together to keep the organism alive.
All cells can be divided into one of two classifications: prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells are found in bacteria and archaea. Eukaryotic cells are found in organisms from the domain Eukaryota which includes animals, plants, fungi and protists.
Every cell is different but there is a basic structure that is common to all cells. A cell is essentially genetic material in a gel-like substance surrounded by a membrane.
The genetic material of cells is found as molecules called DNA. The DNA of a cell holds all the information that a cell needs to keep itself alive. A DNA molecule contains a code that can be translated by a cell and tells it how to perform different tasks. A gene is a specific segment of a DNA molecule and each gene tells a cell how to perform one specific task. The gel-like substance that the genetic material is found in is called the cytoplasm.Biology is the study of life.
As humans are living things, we have a natural sense of curiosity and affection towards life and how has come to be. The study of biology incorporates everything imaginable related to the life on Earth.
Class 12 Biology Notes Chapter-wise
It can be very broad and focus on details regarding the entire planet or it may be very specific and study microscopic structures such as bacteria or DNA. Studying living things, called organisms, takes us all around the world, from the most productive tropical rain forests to the hostile lands of Antarctica or the deepest oceanic basins.
Although our knowledge of the world around us is constantly changing, there are a few basic principles of biology that should hopefully remain useful for many years to come. Most biological study is built on the foundations of five universally recognized truths. These are:. As you can imagine and may very well know, biology is a massive field of study. It is constantly developing as biologists around the world are completing research and taking our understanding of life to new levels.
Life is a phenomenon existing as far as we know only on Earth. All of the living things on Earth are collectively known as organisms. There are a range of functions that are essential for something to be considered an organism.
These include movement, respiration, sensitivity, growth, reproduction, the release of wastes and the consumption of food. Life has evolved into an incredible array of shapes and forms. Humans belong to the most advanced group of organisms, the animals.
Other higher-level organisms include plants and fungi. More primitive life forms include microscopic groups such as bacteria and archaea. Viruses are an unusual group because they are unable to reproduce without the use of a host cell.
As such, viruses are classed by some biologists to be living and by others to be not. All living things are built from microscopic structures called cells.
One cell has the potential to sustain life and is the simplest structure capable of doing so. Although life evolved into multi-cellular organisms a long time ago, the majority of life on Earth still remains as single-celled organisms. Bacteria, archaea, protistsand many fungi have only one cell and are able to survive and reproduce in a huge array of ways that puts plants and animals to shame.
Cells are typically divided into two main categories: prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells are found only in microscopic organisms such as bacteria and archaea. Eukaryotic cells are found in more advanced organisms such as animals, plants, and fungi. Organelles perform specific functions such as photosynthesis and protein production. The cells from one organism to the next always varies but they do often have many similarities. Almost all cells contain DNA, are surrounded by a membrane, and perform similar functions such as respiration and the production of proteins.
Genes are the basic unit for heredity. When organisms reproduce, the information from genes is passed from parent to offspring. The genes that are passed from parent to offspring then provide the information to cells to keep the new organism alive.What is biology?
Simply put, it is the study of life, in all of its grandeur. Biology concerns all life forms, from the very small algae to the very large elephant.
But how do we know if something is living? To answer these questions, biologists have created a set of criteria called the "characteristics of life. Living things include both the visible world of animals, plants, and fungi as well as the invisible world of bacteria and viruses.Study With Me ☀️Biology notes and Math - studytee
On a basic level, we can say that life is ordered. Organisms have an enormously complex organization. We're all familiar with the intricate systems of the basic unit of life, the cell. Life can "work. It means that living creatures can take in energy from the environment.
This energy, in the form of food, is transformed to maintain metabolic processes and for survival. Life grows and develops.
Introduction to Biology
This means more than just replicating or getting larger in size. Living organisms also have the ability to rebuild and repair themselves when injured. Life can reproduce. Have you ever seen dirt reproduce? I don't think so. Life can only come from other living creatures. Life can respond. Think about the last time you accidentally stubbed your toe. Almost instantly, you flinched back in pain. Life is characterized by this response to stimuli. Finally, life can adapt and respond to the demands placed on it by the environment.
There are three basic types of adaptations that can occur in higher organisms. In summary, life is organized, "works," grows, reproduces, responds to stimuli and adapts.Bacteriophage- Structure, Classification, Application The virus that infects only bacterial cells bacteria eater Known as naturally abundant obligate intracellular parasites Niche- present where bacteria or archaea reside Diversity is more than the number of bacteria in nature Small size causes it to beyond the limits of light microscope resolution Smallest bacteriophage: 20 nanometers in diameter, … Read more Bacteriophage- Structure, Classification, Application.
Environmental Factors affecting Microbial Growth Apart from nutritional components growth of the microbes are also dependent on several environmental factors. These factors play an important role in understanding the growth pattern of a microbe. Apart from that, it is important to understand these factors especially in an industrial set up where a huge amount of … Read more Environmental Factors affecting Microbial Growth. Probiotic strains and their Human benefits What are Probiotics?
Probiotics are living microorganisms that are intended to have health benefits when consumed or applied to the body. They are majorly found in milk products like yogurt, cheese, fermented foods, and food supplements. The Science of microorganisms has shown that most bacterial characteristics are similar morphologically … Read more Probiotic strains and their Human benefits.
Microbial Growth and Nutrition Micro and Macro Nutrients The microbial cell is made up of several elements such as carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and iron. These are also known as macro elements or macronutrients because these elements are required in high amounts by the microbes. The much thicker Peptidoglycan layer is present in gram-negative than gram-positive bacteria.
Porins present in the outer membrane, that act … Read more Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria with commercial uses. Direct Counts Counting Chamber Technique: In the direct microscopic count, a counting chamber with a ruled slide is employed.
It is constructed in such a manner that the ruled lines define a known volume. The number of bacteria in a small known volume is directly counted microscopically and the number … Read more Direct and Viable Microbial Count Methods. Microorganisms play an important role in causing infection and contamination. Therefore, Sterilization is an important technique in microbiology which helps to remove or destroy microorganisms from materials or surfaces. Common Definitions Sterilization It is the process by which an article, surface or medium is made free of all microorganisms either in vegetative or spore form.
Bacteria require several nutrients for their growth. Structural components such as cell wall and cell membrane restrict the entry of several molecules inside the cell. Therefore, the specific mechanism for nutrient uptake is highly important for the bacterial cell.
Image Source: Dr. Kenneth Todar There are different transport mechanisms involved in the process which are … Read more Solute Transport Mechanisms in Bacteria. Cell signaling and its types Cell signaling is referred to as the communication between various cells and molecules. The two most important part of cell signaling is a ligand and a receptor.
A ligand is a molecule that is a primary messenger that binds to a specific receptor on the cell and transduces a signaling … Read more Cell signaling and cAMP-mediated pathway.
It is composed of polysaccharide, except in the anthrax bacillus, which has a capsule of polymerized d-glutamic acid.